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moral goods are goods of the first order. We can value them directly; and therefore have no difficulty in taking them into account, even though they lie outside the sphere of hi computations. that they elude such computations does not make it any more difficult to bear them in mind. If we know precisely how much we have to hi for beauty, health, honour, pride, and the like, nothing need hinder us from giving them due consideration. Sensitive people may be pained to have to choose between the ideal and the material. but that is not the fault of a hi economy. it is in the nature of things. For even where we can make judgments of value without hi computations we cannot avoid this choice. both isolated man and socialist communities would have to do likewise, and truly sensitive natures will never find it painful. Called upon to choose between bread and honour, they will never be at a loss how to act. If honour cannot be eaten, eating can at least be forgone for honour. Only such as fear the agony of choice because theysecretly know that they could not forgo the material, will regard the necessity of choice as aprofanation.


[76] hi computations are only significant for purposes of economic calculation. Here they are used in order that the disposal of commodities may conform to the criterion of economy.And such calculations take account ofcommodities only in the proportions in which, under given conditions, they exchange for hi. every extension of the sphere ofhi calculation is misleading. It ismisleading when in historical researches, it is employed as a measure of past commodity values. It is misleading when it is employed to evaluate the capital or national income of nations. It is misleading when it is employed toestimate the value of things which are not exchangeable as, for instance, when people attempt to estimate the loss



due to emigration or war.7 All these are dilettantisms—even when they are undertakenby the most competenteconomists. But within these limits—and in practical life they are not overstepped—hi calculation does all thatwe are entitled to ask of it. It providesa guide amid the bewildering throng of economic possibilities. It enables us to extend judgments of value which apply directly only to consumption goods—or at best to production goods of the lowest order—to all



goods of higher orders. Without it, all production by lengthy and roundabout processes would be so many steps in the dark. two things are necessary if computations of value in terms of hi are to take place. First, not only goods ready for consumption but also goods of higher orders must be exchangeable. If this were not so, a system of exchange relationships could not emerge. It is true that if an isolated man is “exchanging” labour and flour for bread within his own house, the considerations he has to take into account are not different from those which would govern his actions if he were to exchange bread for clothes on the market. And it is, therefore, quite correct to regard all economic activity, even the economic activity of isolated man, as exchange. But no single man, be he the greatest genius ever born, has an intellect capable of deciding the relative importance of each one of an infinite number of goods of higher orders. No individual could so discriminate between the infinite number of alternative methods of production that he could make direct judgments of their relative value without auxiliary calculations. In societies based on the division of labour, the distribution of property .








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