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Take your, fam...on an adventure







Arian horse nomad, no less than in the herdsman of Asia and Africa, e.g., the Zulu. Secondly, tribes of herdsmen increase faster than hordes of hunters.This is so, not only because the adults can obtain much more nourishment from a given territory, butstill more because possession of the milk of animals shortens the period of nursing for themothers, [43]and consequently permits a greater number of children to be born andto grow to maturity. As a consequence, the pastures and steppes of the old world became inexhaustible fountains, which periodically burst their confines


letting loose inundations of humanity, so that they came to be called the “vaginæ gentium.” Moreover we find a much larger number of armed warriors among herdsmen than among hunters. Each one of these herdsmen is stronger individually, and yet allof them together are at least asmobile as is a horde of huntsmen; while the camel and horse riders among them are incomparably more mobile. this greater mhi of the best individual elements is held together by an organization only possible under theægis of a slave-holding patriarchate accustomed to rule, an organization prepared and developedby its



occupation, and thereforesuperior to that of the young warriors of the huntsmen sworn to the service of one chief. Hunters, it may be observed, work best aloneor in small groups. Herdsmen, on theother [44]hand, move to the best advantage in a great train, in which each individual is best protected;and which is in every sense an armed expedition, where every stopping place becomes an armed camp. Thus there is developed a science of tactical maneuvers, strict subordination, and firm discipline. “One does not make a mistake,” as Ratzel says, “if one accounts as the disciplinary forces in the life of the nomads the order of the tents which, in the same form, exists since most ancient times. Every one and everything here has a definite, traditional place; hence the speed and order in setting up and in breaking camp, in establishment and in rearrangement. It is unheard of that any one without orders, or without the most pressing reason, should change his place. Thanks to this strict discipline, the tents can be packed up and loaded away within the space of


an hour.”19 The same tried order, handed down from untold ages, regulates the warlike march of the tribe of herdsmen while on the hunt, in war and in peaceable wandering. Thus they become [45]professional fighters, irresistible until thestate develops higher andmightier organizations. Herdsman and warrior become identical concepts. Ratzel’s statement concerning the Central Asiatic Nomads applies to them all: “The nomad is, as herdsman, an economic, as warrior, a political concept. It is easy for him to turn from any activity to that of the warrior and robber. Everything in life has for him a pacific and war-like, an honest and robber-like, side; according to circumstances, the one or the other of these phases appears uppermost. Even fishing and navigation, at the hands of the East CaspianTurkomans, developed into piracy . . . . The activities of theapparently pacific existence as a herdsman determine those of the warrior; the pastoral crook becomes a fighting implement. In the fall, when the horses return strengthened from the pasture and the second cropping ofthe sheep is completed,the nomads’ minds turn to some feud or robbing expedition (Baranta, literally, to make cattle, to lift cattle), adjourned to that time. This is an expression [46]of the right of self help, which in .






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