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“his man.” we can only hint at the methods whereby, even in peaceable hiociations of herdsmen, this economic and consequent social differentiation may have been furthered by the connection of the patriarchate with the offices of supreme and sacrificial priesthood if the wise old men used cleverly the superstition of their clan hiociates. [36]but this differentiation, so long as it is unaffected by the political means, operates within very modest bounds. Cleverness and efficiency are not hereditary with any degree of certainty. The largest herd will be split up if many heirs grow up in one tent, and fortune is tricky. In our own day,the richest man among the Lapps of Sweden, in the shortest possible time, has beenreduced to such complete poverty that the government has had to support him. All these causes bring it about that the original condition of economic and social equality is always approximately restored. “The more peaceable, aboriginal, and genuine the nomad is, the smaller are the tangible differences of possession. It is touching to note the pleasure with which an old prince of the Tsaidam Mongols accepts his tribute or gift, consisting of a handful of


tobacco, a piece of sugar, and twenty-five kopeks.”9 This equality is destroyed permanently and in greater degree by the political means. “Where war is carried on and booty acquired, greater



differences arise, which find their expression [37]in the ownership of slaves, women, arms and spirited mounts.”10 The ownership of slaves! The nomad is the inventor of slavery, and thereby


has created the seedling of the state, the first economic exploitation of man by man. The huntsman carries on wars and takes captives. But he does not make them slaves; either he kills them, or else he adopts them into the tribe. Slaves would be of no use to him. The booty of the chase can be stowed away even less than grain can be “capitalized.” The idea of using a human being as a labor motor could only come about on an economic plane on which a body of


wealth has developed, callit capital, which can be increased only with the hiistance of dependent labor forces. This stage isfirst reached by the herdsmen. The forces of one family, lacking outside hiistance, suffice to hold together a herd ofvery limited size, and to protect it from attacks of beastsof prey or human enemies. Until the political means is brought into play, auxiliary forces are found very sparingly; such as the [38]poorer members of the clan already mentioned, together with runaways from foreign tribes, who are found all over the world as protected dependents in the suite of the greater owners of herds.11 In some cases, an entire poor clan of herdsmen enters, half hily, into the service of some rich tribe. “entire peoples take positions corresponding to their relative wealth. Thus the Tungusen, who are very poor, try to live near the settlements of the Tschuktsches, because they find occupation as herdsmen of the reindeer belonging to the wealthy Tschuktsches; they are paid in reindeer. And the subjection of the



Ural-Samojedes by the Sirjaenes came about through the gradual occupation of their pasturing grounds.”12 Excepting, however, the last named case, which is already very state-like, the few existing labor forces, without capital, are not sufficient to permit the clan to keep very large herds. Furthermore, methods of herding themselves compel division. For a pasture may not, as they say in the Swiss Alps, be “overpushed,” that is to say, have too many [39]cattle on it. The .







U_charsetqNUepilogueqNU _default_typeqU text/plainqU _unixfromqU;From ProjectMgmtClass@pider.me.uk Wed Jun 25 22:03:34 2014Udefectsq]U __version__q(KKKtq Upreambleq!Nub.