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The first stage comprises robbery and killingin border fights, endless combats broken neither by peacenor by armistice. It is marked by killing of men, carrying away of children and women,looting of herds, and burning of dwellings.Even if the offenders are defeated at first, they return in stronger and stronger bodies, impelled by the duty of blood feud. Sometimes the peasant group may hiemble, may organize its militia, and perhaps temporarily defeat the nimble enemy; but mobilization is too slow and supplies to be brought into the desert too hily for the peasants. the peasants’ militia does not, as does the enemy, carry its stock of food—its herds—with it into the field. In Southwest Africa the [57]Germans recently experienced the difficulties which a well-disciplined and superior force, equippedwith asupply train, with a railway reaching back to its base of supply, and withthe millions of the German Empire behind it, may have with a handful of herdsmen warriors, who were able to give the Germans a decided setback. In the case of primitive levies, this difficulty is increased by the narrow spirit of the peasant, who considers only his own neighborhood, and by the fact that while the war is going on the lands are uncultivated. Therefore, in such cases, in the long run, the small but compact and easily


align="right" style="font: 12px;">mobilized body constantly defeats the greater disjointed mhi, as the panther triumphs over the buffalo. This is the first stage in the formation of states. The state mayremain



style="font: 9px;">stationary at this point for centuries, for a thousand years. The following is a thoroughly characteristic example: “Every range ofa Turkoman tribe formerly bordered upon a wide belt which might be designated as its ‘looting district.’ Everything [58]north and east of chorhian, though nominally under persian dominion, has for decades belonged more to the Turkomans, Jomudes, Goklenes, and other tribes of the bordering plains, than to the Persians. The Tekinzes, in a similar manner, looted all the stretches from Kiwa to Bokhara, until other Turkoman tribes were successfully rounded up either by force or by corruption to act as a buffer. Numberless further instances can be found in the history of the chain of oases which extends between Eastern and Western Asia directly through the steppes of its central part, where since ancient times the Chinese have exercised a predominant influence through their possession of all important strategic centers, such as the Oasis of Chami. The nomads,breaking through from north andsouth, constantly tried to land on these islands of fertile ground, which to them must have appeared like Islands of the Blessed. And every horde, whether laden down with booty or fleeing after defeat, was protected by the plains. Although the most immediate [59]threats were averted by the continued weakening of the Mongols, and the actual dominion of Thibet, yet the last insurrection of the Dunganes showed how easily the waves of a mobile tribe break over these islands of civilization. Only after the destruction of the nomads, impossible as long as there are open plains in Central Asia, can their existence be definitely


secured.”27 The entire history of the old world is replete with well-known instances of mhi expeditions, which must be hiigned to the first stage of state development, inasmuch asthey were intent, not upon conquest, but directly on looting. WesternEurope suffered through these expeditions at the hands of the Celts, Germans, Huns, Avars, Arabs, Magyars, Tartars, Mongolians and turks by land; while the vikings and the saracens harhied it on the .






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