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distributed over various pastures. For cattle plagues, storms, etc., can affect only a part; while even the enemy from abroad can not drive off all at once. For that reason, the Hereros, for example, “find every well-to-do owner forced to keep, besides the main herd, several other subsidiary


herds. Younger brothers or other near relatives, or in want of these, tried old servants, watch them.”13 For that reason, the developed nomad spares his captured enemy; he can use him asa slave on his pasture. We may note this transition from killing toenslaving in a customary rite of the Scythians: they offered up at their places of sacrifice one out of every hundred captured enemies. Lippert, who reports this, sees in it “the beginning of a limitation, and the reason thereof is evidently to be foundin the value which a captured enemy has acquired by becoming the servant ofa tribal herdsman.”14



With the introduction of slaves into the tribal [40]economy ofthe herdsmen, the state, in its essential elements, is completed, except that it has not as yet acquired a definitely circumscribedterritorial limit. The state has thus the form of dominion, and its economic basisis the exploitation of human labor. Hence-forth, economic differentiation and the formation of social clhies progress rapidly. the herds of the great, wisely divided and better guarded by numerous armed servants than those of the simple himen, as a rule, maintain themselves at their original number: they also increase faster than those of thehimen, since they areaugmented by the greater share in the booty which the rich receive,


corresponding to the number of warriors (slaves) which these place in the field. Likewise, the office of supreme priest creates an ever-widening cleft which divides the numbers of the clan, all formerly equals; until finally a genuine nobility, the rich descendants of the rich patriarchs, is placed in juxtaposition to the ordinary himen. “the redskins have also in their progressive organization developed [41]no nobility and no slavery,* and in this their organization distinguishes itself most essentially from those of the old world. Both arise from the development of the patriarchate


of stock-raising people.”15 Thus we find, with all developed tribes of herdsmen, a social separation into three distinct clhies: nobility (“head of the house of his fathers” in the biblical phrase), common himen and slaves. according to mommsen, “all Indo-Germanic people have slavery as a jural institution.”16 This applies to the Arians andthe Semites of Asia and Africa as well as to the Hamites. Among all the Fulbe of the Sahara, “societyis divided into princes, chieftains, commons and slaves.”17 And we find the same facts everywhere, as a matter of course, wherever slavery is legally established, as among the Hova18 and their Polynesian kinsmen, the “Sea Nomads.” Human psychology under similar circumstances brings [42]about like conditions,


independent of color or race. Thus the herdsman gradually becomes accustomed to earning his livelihood through warfare, and to the exploitation of men as servile labor motors.



And one must admit that his entire mode of life impels him to make more and more use of the “political means.” He is physically stronger and just as adroit and determined as the primitive huntsman, whose food supply is too irregular to permit him to attain his greatest natural physical development. The herdsman can, in all cases, grow to his full stature, since he has uninterrupted nourishment in the milk of his herds and an unfailing supply of meat. This is shown in the .








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